Math Essential Standards Grade: Kindergarten
Counting and Cardinality
Know number names and the counting sequence. Count to tell the number of objects. Identify and compare quantities of objects and numerals. 
K.CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens. 
K.CC.2 Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1). 
K.CC.3 Read and write numbers using base ten numerals from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral, in or out of sequence (0 represents a count of no objects). 
K.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
a. When counting objects, say the numbers in the standard order. Pair each quantity of objects with one and only one number, and each number with the correct quantity of objects. b. Understand that the last number said represents the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted. c. Understand that each successive number refers to a quantity that is one greater than the previous number. 
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. 
K.OA.1 Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, simple drawings, or sounds. For example, use clapping, act out situations, and use verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. 
K.OA.5 Fluently add and subtract using numbers within 5. 
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
Work with numbers 1119 to gain foundations for place value. 
K.NBT.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 
Measurement and Data
Describe and compare measurable attributes. Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category. 
K.MD.2 Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter. 
Geometry
Identify and describe shapes. Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes. 
K.G.1 Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. 
Total: 9 Standards
Math Essential Standards Grade: First
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction within 20. Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. Work with addition and subtraction equations. 
1.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions. For example, use objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
1.OA.6 Add and subtract within 20.
a. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (for example, 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (for example, 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (for example, knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (for example, adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). b. By the end of Grade 1, demonstrate fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. 
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
Extend the counting sequence. Understand place value. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. 
1.NBT.1 Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. 
1.NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a twodigit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:
a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones, called a “ten.” b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). 
1.NBT.4 Add within 100, including adding a twodigit number and a onedigit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding twodigit numbers, one adds tens to tens and ones to ones, and that it is sometimes necessary to compose a ten. 
Measurement and Data
Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. Tell and write time. Represent and interpret data. 
1.MD.3 Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks 
Geometry
Reason with shapes and their attributes. 
1.G.3 Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. 
Total: 7 Standards
Math Essential Standards Grade: Second
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. Fluently add and subtract within 20 and work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication. 
2.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one and twostep word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing with unknowns in all positions, for example, by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
2.OA.2 Fluently add and subtract within 20. a. Add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies such as counting on; making ten (for example, 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (for example, 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (for example, knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (for example, adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). b. By the end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers 
Numbers and Operations Base 10
Understand place value. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. 
2.NBT.1 Understand that the three digits of a threedigit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; for example, 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:
a. 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens called a “hundred.” b. The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). 
2.NBT.5 Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction 
Measurement and Data
Measure and estimate lengths in standard units and relate addition and subtraction to length. Work with time and money. Represent and interpret data. 
2.MD.1 Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. 
2.MD.7 Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. 
2.MD.8 Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. For example, if you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? 
Geometry
Reason with shapes and their attributes. 
2.G.1 Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. 
2.G.3 Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. 
Total: 8 Standards
Math Essential Standards Grade: Third
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division within 100. Demonstrate understanding of the properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division. Use the four operations to identify and explain patterns in arithmetic 
3.OA.3 Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
3.OA.7 Fluently multiply and divide. a. Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division or properties of operations. (For example, knowing that 8 x 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8.) b. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two onedigit numbers. 
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic. A range of algorithms may be used. 
3.NBT.2 Fluently add and subtract within 1,000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
Numbers and Operations in Fractions
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 in third grade. 
3.NF.1 Understand that a unit fraction has a numerator of one and a nonzero denominator.
a. Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by one part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts. b. Understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. For example: 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 = 3/4. 
3.NF.2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
a. Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line. b. Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line. 
Measurement and Data
Solve problems involving measurement and estimation. Represent and interpret data. Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter. 
3.MD.7 Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

3.MD.8 Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. 
Geometry
Reason with shapes and their attributes. 
3.G.1 Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. 
Total: 8 Standards
Math Essential Standards Grade: Fourth
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Use the four operations with whole numbers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to solve problems. Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. Generate and analyze numeric and shape patterns. Demonstrate complete fluency with products of onedigit numbers. 
4.OA.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison (for example, interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5). Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. 
4.OA.2 Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, for example, by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. 
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
Understand the place value system. Perform operations with multidigit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. 
4.NBT.2 Read and write multidigit whole numbers using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multidigit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
4.NBT.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
4.NBT.5 Find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
Numbers and Operations in Fractions
Extend understanding of equivalence and ordering of fractions. Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. Understand decimal notation to the hundredths and compare decimal fractions with denominators of 10 and 100. Denominators for fourth grade are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100. 
4.NF.1 (n x a)/(n x b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves. 
4.NF.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, for example, by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, for example, by using a visual fraction model. 
4.NF.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

Measurement and Data
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements. Represent and interpret data. Understand concepts of angle and measure angles. 
4.MD.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), … 
Geometry
Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. 
4.G.2 Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. 
Total: 9 Standards
Math Essential Standards Grade: Fifth
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Write and interpret numerical expressions, and analyze patterns and relationships. 
5.OA.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. 
Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
Understand the place value system. Perform operations with multidigit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. 
5.NBT.2 Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000). Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
5.NBT.5 Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
5.NBT.7 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. In this standard, dividing decimals is limited to a whole number dividend with a decimal divisor or a decimal dividend with a whole number divisor. Compare the value of the quotient on the basis of the values of the dividend and divisor. 
Numbers and Operations in Fractions
Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. 
5.NF.1 Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.) 
5.NF.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.
a. Interpret the product (a/b) x q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a x q ÷ b using a visual fraction model. For example, use a fraction model to show (2/3) x 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) x (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) x (c/d) = ac/bd.) b. Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. 
5.NF.7 Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions. Use strategies to divide fractions by reasoning about the relationship between multiplication and division. Division of a fraction by a fraction is not a requirement at this grade.
a. Interpret division of a unit fraction by a nonzero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) x 4 = 1/3. b. Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 x (1/5) = 4. c. Solve realworld problems involving division of unit fractions by nonzero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, for example, by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if three people share 1/2 lb. of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in two cups of raisins? 
Measurement and Data
Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system. Represent and interpret data. Understand concepts of volume. 
5.MD.3 Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.

Geometry
Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve realworld and mathematical problems. Classify twodimensional figures into categories based on their properties. 
5.GA.2 Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. 
Total: 6 Standards
Math Essential Standards Grade: Sixth
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. 
Standard 6.RP.2 Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. The following are examples of rate language: “This recipe has a ratio of four cups of flour to two cups of sugar, so the rate is two cups of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.” (In sixth grade, unit rates are limited to noncomplex fractions.) 
The Number System
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division of whole numbers to divide fractions by fractions. Compute (add, subtract, multiply and divide) fluently with multidigit numbers and decimals and find common factors and multiples. Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. 
Standard 6.NS.1 Interpret and compute quotients of fractions.
a. Compute quotients of fractions by fractions, for example, by applying strategies such as visual fraction models, equations, and the relationship between multiplication and division, to represent problems. b. Solve realworld problems involving division of fractions by fractions. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if three people share 1/2 pound of chocolate equally? How many 3/4cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mile and area 1/2 square mile? c. Explain the meaning of quotients in fraction division problems. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) 
Standard 6.NS.6 Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.
a. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of zero on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself. For example, (3) = 3, and zero is its own opposite. b. Understand that the signs of numbers in ordered pairs indicate their location in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes. c. Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane. 
Expressions and Equations
Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions involving exponents and variables. They reason about and solve onevariable equations and inequalities. Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables in a realworld context. 
Standard 6.EE.2 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters represent numbers.
a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters representing numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y and express “Jane had $105.00 in her bank account. One year later, she had x dollars more. Write an expression that shows her new balance” as $105.00 + x. b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (for example, sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity and a sum of two terms. For example, describe the expression 2(8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms. c. Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in realworld problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving wholenumber exponents, applying the Order of Operations when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order. For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2. 
Standard 6.EE.7 Solve realworld and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + a = b and ax = b for cases in which a, b and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. 
Probability and Statistics
Develop understanding of statistical variability of data. Summarize and describe distributions. 
6.SP.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:
a. Reporting the number of observations. b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations (for example, outliers) from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered. 
Geometry
Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve realworld and mathematical problems. Classify twodimensional figures into categories based on their properties. 
6.G.1 Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing and decomposing into rectangles, triangles and/or other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
Total: 7 Standards